Pré-visualização | Página 1 de 5
Does living setting inﬂuence training adaptations in young girls? M. C. Gallotta, L. Guidetti, G. P. Emerenziani, E. Franciosi, C. Baldari Department of Health Sciences, University of Rome ‘‘Foro Italico,’’ Rome, Italy Corresponding author: Carlo Baldari, Department of Health Sciences, University of Rome ‘‘Foro Italico,’’ Piazza Lauro De Bosis, 15, I - 00194 Rome, Italy. Tel: 0039 06 36733227, Fax: 0039 06 36733371, E-mail: email@example.com Accepted for publication 8 July 2009 To assess whether rural or urban setting may inﬂuence young girls’ ﬁtness and coordinative abilities training adap- tations following dance training. Forty-four dancers aged 11–12 years (21 urban, 23 rural) attended a 6-month dance training while continuing to practice their habitual physical activities (PA). Dancers’ ﬁtness and motor coordination abilities were assessed by pre- and post-intervention tests (anthropometric measures, 1-mile run/walk, sit and reach, standing long jump, hand grip and four ﬁeld tests of kinaesthetic discrimination and response orientation). PA was assessed using a self-report recall measure. After the intervention period, rural dancers signiﬁcantly improved in 1-mile run/walk, lower limb kinaesthetic discrimination and response orientation ability tests. Signiﬁcant diﬀerences between two groups in upper limb response orientation ability test were found. Both groups showed a signiﬁcant increase in body height and weight. Multiple regression analysis indicated that time in nonorganized PA predicted some ﬁtness and coordinative changes (1-mile run/walk, lower limb response orientation and kinaesthetic discrimi- nation ability tests) following the training period, although the percentage of variance it could explain was moderate. Our results showed that training adaptations of some ﬁtness and coordinative performances could be inﬂuenced by set- ting characteristics that provided opportunities for diﬀerent types of PA. Participation in physical activity (PA) during adoles- cence can promote the development of ﬁtness and motor abilities (Okely et al., 2001), the maintenance of strength, ﬂexibility, balance and coordination and it can aid the development of motor skills (Sleap & Tolfrey, 2001). Sallis et al. (1998) have identiﬁed a number of environmental, social and demographic variables as determinants of children’s physical ex- ercise. Setting (urban/rural) is an important condi- tioning factor for participation in PA and for the development of its components (ﬁtness and coordi- nation). A number of studies have been conducted to identify the association between youths’ PA and setting variables (Sallis et al., 1997, 1998, 2000; Felton et al., 2002; Loucaides et al., 2004; Davison & Lawson, 2006). In a study with Greek-Cypriot children (Loucaides et al., 2004), the opportunity to spend their free time outdoor and to use open playgrounds and sports facilities in the immediate distance from their own home resulted particularly important for PA engage- ment because children depended on adults for trans- port to the places where they could be physically active. Furthermore, a recent study provided evi- dence that the availability of neighborhood facilities for PA was relevant for youths, who were unable to drive and whose activity was often limited to the immediate distance they were able to walk or bicycle (Cohen et al., 2006). Adults usually take children to the places where they can be physically active by car or other means of transport; because of wider dis- tances, this happens to be more frequent in cities than in small villages. A cross-sectional study of adolescents provided evidence for a link between the presence of smaller or local roads, where the traﬃc was limited and speed limits were low, making easier to move by walking or biking, and the possi- bility for youths to manage autonomously own free time and sport activities (Nelson et al., 2006). There- fore, cities oﬀer many possibilities to play organized sport activities, but few possibilities to practice free and nonorganized daily PA. It has been well documented that the ease of access to safe and outdoor sites in the rural communities promoted many types and levels’ activity of children such to favor the development of ﬁtness parameters and coordinative abilities (Tsimeas et al., 2005). Children who live in urban centers spent more time playing video games or watching TV than rural children who spent most of their free time in recrea- tional and outdoor activities (Loucaides et al., 2004). The combination of factors such as availability of open-spaces and neighbors’ safety could aid children to spend more time in outdoor free activities. According to Johns and Ha (1999) lack in availability and proximity to PA facilities and spaces reduced Scand J Med Sci Sports 2011: 21: 324–329 & 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01009.x 324 time that children spent outdoor and therefore their possibility to practice PA. Considering characteris- tics such as safety, availability of spaces and children time amount spent in outdoor activities, small rural communities provided favorable settings to PA prac- tice. In fact, as reported by Sallis et al. (2000) time spent outdoor was a factor highly correlated to children’s activity level. Recently, some authors studied whether living in urban or rural settings could aﬀect aspects of physi- cal ﬁtness in children (Pen˜a Reyes et al., 2003; Tsimeas et al., 2005), but to the best of our knowl- edge, no study was conducted to investigate possible inﬂuences of setting on training adaptations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether rural or urban setting may inﬂuence young girls’ ﬁtness and coordinative abilities following modern-jazz dance training. Materials and methods Participants Forty-four healthy female modern-jazz dancers aged 11–12 years volunteered to participate in this study. Twenty-one dancers lived in the metropolitan districts of Rome. Twenty- three dancers lived in a small rural community (Sant’Oreste) located about 50 km north of the city of Rome. Their anthro- pometric indices at both baseline and follow-up were shown in Table 1. All participants were dance beginners. They regularly trained 1 h twice a week. The institutional review boards of the University of Rome ‘‘Foro Italico’’ approved the investigation. Informed consent forms were obtained from both parents and dancers before study participation. All dancers involved in this study continued to practice their habitual (organized and nonorganized) PA. Physical fitness and coordination assessments Pre- and post-intervention anthropometric measurements as- sessed dancers’ weight, height and body fat. Weight and height were measured using a scale and a stadiometer to the nearest 0.5 kg and 0.1 cm, respectively. Triceps and calf skinfolds thickness was measured to the nearest 0.2mm using a calliper (Harpenden, St. Albans, UK) on the right side of the body. All skinfolds were taken three times by the same experimenter to ensure consistency in results with the average of the three values used as a ﬁnal value. To predict body fat (%FM) the equation described by Slaughter et al. (1988) was selected for this investigation. Pre- and post-intervention tests assessed dancers’ physical ﬁtness (EUROFIT, 1988; The Cooper Institute, 2006) and coordinative abilities (Hirtz et al., 1985). Fitness ﬁeld tests included the following: � The 1-mile run/walk test to assess aerobic power and cardiorespiratory endurance. Subjects were instructed to run/walk to cover the distance as fast as possible. Walking could be interspersed with running; subjects were allowed to walk but not to stop if they were exhausted. The test was scored in minutes and seconds. � The sit and reach test to assess lower back/upper thigh ﬂexibility.