Aula 5 estagio
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Aula 5 estagio

Disciplina:Prática de Ensino e Estágio Superv. de Inglês I13 materiais167 seguidores
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Aula 05: Learning strategies

Nesta aula, você irá:

Identificar diferentes tipos de estratégias de aprendizagem de línguas
Reconhecer a importância dessas estratégias para a aprendizagem eficiente
Relacionar as estratégias diretas com as indiretas

 Introdução da aula

Prezado(a) aluno(a),

 Nesta quinta aula, abordaremos um tema de extrema importância tanto para alunos como para professores ou futuros professores de uma língua estrangeira. Discutiremos o papel das estratégias de aprendizagem no processo de aprendizagem de uma língua estrangeira.
 Introduziremos os diferentes tipos de estratégia e discorremos acerca de suas respectivas subdivisões e da importância de cada uma delas para uma aprendizagem eficaz e eficiente.
 Por fim, discutiremos o papel do professor de língua estrangeira no ensino dessas estratégias para que seus alunos possam aprender com mais facilidade, mais rapidamente e de forma mais eficiente.
 Bons Estudos!

Aprenda mais!

Nesta aula, você:

Identificou diferentes tipos de estratégias de aprendizagem de línguas
Reconheceu a importância dessas estratégias para a aprendizagem eficiente
Relacionou as estratégias diretas com as indiretas

Próxima aula

Na próxima aula, você estudará sobre os assuntos seguintes:

- Revisão das aulas anteriores


Suppose you are at a hotel and you have to complain about your room to the manager in English. Explain what specific learning strategies you might use to accomplish this task and justify your choice.

1 – Which of the following sentences is INCORRECT:

a) Learning strategies are not supposed to be used by elementary students.
b) Learners employ learning strategies in order to learn a foreign language.
c) All appropriate language learning strategies are oriented towards achieving communicative competence.
d) Learning strategies help learners participate actively in the process of language learning.
e) The more strategies a learner uses, the better s/he is at learning a foreign language.

2 – Regarding the use of language learning strategies:

a) Direct strategies are reported be more effective than indirect strategies.
b) Indirect strategies are reported be more effective than direct strategies.
c) Direct and indirect strategies should be used in combination in order to produce the best results.
d) Neither direct nor indirect strategies are effective.
e) None of the above.

3 – Regarding the role of the language teacher:

a) His/Her job is to teach the language, not language learning strategies.
b) Besides teaching the language, s/he should also be able to teach language learning strategies.
c) Teaching language learning strategies should be optional, since their effectiveness is not clear yet.
d) Language learning strategies cannot be taught.
e) None of the above.

answers: a – c – b

Conteúdo Online


Have you
considered what
learning strategies
 are and what is their importance in language learning?

Have you ever made use of any
language learning strategy

 A significant change has taken place within the field of language teaching over the last few decades. Due to this shift, a lot more emphasis has been placed in learners and learning, instead of in teachers and teaching. Consequently, there has been a focus on the use of language learning strategies in language teaching, resulting in a greater emphasis on the process and characteristics of these strategies.
 A number of definitions have been advanced by applied linguists. We are going to consider two of them. Nunan (1999) defines learning strategies as mental and communicative procedures used by students in order to learn and use a foreign language effectively. Oxford (1990), on the other hand, offers a more detailed definition which she later expanded:

“...language learning strategies (are) specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques that students (often intentionally) use to improve their progress in developing L2 skills. These strategies can facilitate the internalization, storage, retrieval, or use of the new language. Strategies are tools for the self-directed involvement necessary for developing communicative ability.”
(Oxford, 1992/1993, p. 18)

 However, Nunan (1999) argues that most students are not aware of the strategies that underlie the learning tasks they are engaged in, even though recent research on language learning suggests that the more aware students are of the process which underlies their learning, the more efficient this learning will be.

 Oxford (1990) argues that the use of strategies is extremely important in language learning and students should be aware of that. She gives us two reasons to support her claim. These are:

1. They are tools that help students get more
involved in their own learning.
2. Students who develop learning strategies learn more easily and are more self-confident.

 Indeed, the development and use of learning strategies have been helping many students to develop communicative competence and become more autonomous (that is, of enabling them to take responsibility for their own learning), as well as better language learners.

For your information:

Communicative competence → i
t is the ability
to use a linguistic system adequately in everyday situations, taking into account the functions and varieties of language as well as the sociocultural situatio
n they are
engaged in

 Ellis (2003) argues that learning strategies can be behavioral (e.g. repeating words or expressions aloud in order to remember them) or mental (e.g. inferring meaning of a new word or expression from the linguistic or situational context). The author also explains that these strategies are usually problem-oriented. In other words, students use them whenever they are faced with a problem, such as remembering a new word or phrase.
 According to Oxford (1990), language learning strategies can be grouped into two classes – direct and indirect strategies. Each of them is further subdivided into three groups.

 Observe the table below:

Direct strategies

Indirect strategies

Memory strategies
laying things out in order
making associations
Metacognitive strategies
centering your learning
arranging and planning your learning
evaluating your learning

Cognitive strategies
receiving and sending messages
analyzing and reasoning
creating structure for input and output
Affective strategies

Compensation strategies
Social strategies
asking questions
cooperating with others
empathizing with others

 These strategies and their subdivisions will be briefly discussed in the following section.


 As the name suggests, direct strategies are the ones used directly in dealing with a new language. They help students store and retrieve information. Besides, by using these strategies, students are able to produce language even when there is a gap in knowledge. They also allow students to understand new language. Direct strategies are subdivided into three groups:

1 – Memory strategies → these strategies are based on making association and reviewing. Whenever a student is faced with a challenge of vocabulary learning, s/he can associate the new word(s)