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Handbook of International Relations 
Table Of Contents 
 Table of Contents 
 Subject Index 
 - 
o On the History and Historiography of International Relations 
Brian C. Schmidt 
o Philosophy of Social Science and International Relations 
Colin Wight 
o Rationalism v. Constructivism: A Skeptical View 
James Fearon and Alexander Wendt 
o Rational Choice and International Relations 
Duncan Snidal 
o Constructivism and International Relations 
Emanuel Adler 
o Linking Theory to Evidence in International Relations 
Richard K. Herrmann 
o Norms and Ethics in International Relations 
Andrew Hurrell 
 - 
o State, Sovereignty and Territory 
Thomas J. Biersteker 
o Power and International Relations 
David A. Baldwin 
o International Organizations and Institutions 
Beth A. Simmons and Lisa L. Martin 
o Diplomacy, Bargaining and Negotiation 
Christer Jönsson 
o From Interdependence to Globalization 
Michael Zürn 
o Transnational Actors and World Politics 
Thomas Risse 
o Feminist Perspectives on International Relations 
J. Ann Tickner 
o Psychological Explanations of International Conflict 
Janice Gross Stein 
o Domestic Politics and International Relations 
Peter Gourevitch 
 - 
o Foreign Policy 
Walter Carlsnaes 
o War and Peace 
Jack S. Levy 
o Security Cooperation 
Harald Müller 
o Peace-making and Conflict Resolution 
Lilach Gilady and Bruce Russett 
o Nationalism and Ethnicity 
Lars-Erik Cederman 
o International Finance 
Benjamin J. Cohen 
o International Trade 
Helen V. Milner 
o International Development 
Sylvia Maxfield 
o Comparative Regional Integration 
Young Jong Choi and James A. Caporaso 
o International Environment 
Ronald B. Mitchell 
o International Human Rights 
Hans Peter Schmitz and Kathryn Sikkink 
o International Law, International Relations and Compliance 
Kal Raustiala and Anne-Marie Slaughter 
First published 2002 
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or 
review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication 
may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior 
permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in 
accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. 
Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. 
SAGE Publications Ltd 
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London EC2A 4PU 
SAGE Publications Inc. 
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Thousand Oaks, California 91320 
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd 
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication data 
A catalogue record for this book is available from 
the British Library 
ISBN 0 7619 6304 9 
Library of Congress Control Number 2001 135896 
Typeset by SIVA Math Setters, Chennai, India 
Printed in Great Britain by The Cromwell Press, 
Trowbridge, Wiltshire 
Editorial arrangement and Introduction 
© Walter Carlsnaes, Thomas Risse and 
Beth A. Simmons 2002 
Chapter 1 © Brian C. Schmidt 2002 
Chapter 2 © Colin Wight 2002 
Chapter 3 © James Fearon and 
Alexander Wendt 2002 
Chapter 4 © Duncan Snidal 2002 
Chapter 5 © Emanuel Adler 2002 
Chapter 6 © Richard K. Herrmann 2002 
Chapter 7 © Andrew Hurrell 2002 
Chapter 8 © Thomas J. Biersteker 2002 
Chapter 9 © David A. Baldwin 2002 
Chapter 10 © Beth A. Simmons and 
Lisa L. Martin 2002 
Chapter 11 © Christer Jönsson 2002 
Chapter 12 © Michael Zürn 2002 
Chapter 13 © Thomas Risse 2002 
Chapter 14 © J. Ann Tickner 2002 
Chapter 15 © Janice Gross Stein 2002 
Chapter 16 © Peter Gourevitch 2002 
Chapter 17 © Walter Carlsnaes 2002 
Chapter 18 © Jack S. Levy 2002 
Chapter 19 © Harald Müller 2002 
Chapter 20 © Lilach Gilady and 
Bruce Russett 2002 
Chapter 21 © Lars-Erik Cederman 2002 
Chapter 22 © Benjamin J. Cohen 2002 
Chapter 23 © Helen V. Milner 2002 
Chapter 24 © Sylvia Maxfield 2002 
Chapter 25 © Young Jong Choi and 
James A. Caporaso 2002 
Chapter 26 © Ronald B. Mitchell 2002 
Chapter 27 © Hans Peter Schmitz and 
Kathryn Sikkink 2002 
Chapter 28 © Kal Raustiala and Anne-Marie 
Slaughter 2002 
The beginning of a new millennium is a particularly fitting occasion for taking stock of the 
past achievements and present condition of International Relations (IR). However, there is 
an additional reason as well, and one with considerable more intellectual clout: the 
surprising dearth of such attempts at stocktaking within this discipline during most of its 
short history. Those that have been published in the past few decades have either been 
brief guides to the subject matter (Groom and Light, 1994; Light and Groom, 1985), or have 
had the encyclopaedic ambition of covering not only the major analytical approaches within 
the discipline of IR but also all the significant political developments, events and 
personages which have characterized modern international relations qua empirical domain 
(Krieger, 1993). These (and similar) repositories of disciplinary knowledge and accumulated 
wisdom certainly deserve the space which they occupy on the shelves of our scholarly 
libraries. However, given the specific goals which their editors have set for themselves, they 
do not provide for the needs of those advanced students, both undergraduate and 
graduate, as well as more established scholars within or outside the field, who are in need 
of in-depth introductions to, and critical discussions of, the major theoretical and analytical 
concerns of contemporary IR research. In other words, this Handbook is intended to fill 
what we submit is currently a significant lacuna within the discipline: providing a single 
volume of extensive, systematic and authoritative overviews of the state of the art within the 
various sub-fields of the discipline. 
In pursuing this ambition Fred Greenstein and Nelson Polsby’s magisterial Handbook of 
Political Science (Greenstein and Polsby, 1975a) has served as an awe-inspiring exemplar. 
At the same time, their landmark effort – consisting of eight volumes altogether – is 
obviously a feat that is virtually impossible to repeat today, as is frankly acknowledged by 
the editors of its successor, the one-volume New Handbook of Political Science (Goodin 
and Klingemann, 1996). However, what can be replicated even when operating on a 
considerably more modest scale is the seriousness of the intellectual tone which suffuses 
their achievement; and we hope that we have succeeded at least to some degree in the 
delicate task of transferring this timbre to the present Handbook. In one major respect we 
do contend to have succeeded rather better than either of the above works of reference: 
covering the entire spectrum of IR as a field of scholarly endeavor. Thus, whereas the 
Greenstein and Polsby volume on International Politics (Greenstein and Polsby, 1975b) 
consists of only six chapters (one of which, it must be acknowledged, subsequently turned 
into Kenneth Waltz’s epochal Theory of InternationalPolitics), and the New Handbook has 
allotted only four chapters to IR, we have made space for twenty-eight chapter-long 
presentations, covering what we perceive to be the major areas of study and controversy 
characterizing the contemporary IR research community. 
Choosing and agreeing on which topics to include – and hence which to exclude – has 
been a major task facing the three co-editors,