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multiple method of asexual reproduction , producing 
a single ( monogemmic ) or two or more (polygemmic)
filial products , simultaneously or in succession; the 
phenomenon (also known as gemmation) is classifi-
able into several types: modified transverse fission, 
strobilation, endogemmy ( endogenous budding : a 
subtype is cryptogemmy), exogemmy ( exogenous 
budding ), evaginogemmy (evaginogenous or evagi-
native budding ), plus additional refinements of some 
of these ( viz ., circumvaginative, inva-circumvaginative, 
invaginative, pseudo-transverse, semi-circumvagi-
native, and semi-invaginative); typical of suctorians 
and chonotrichs , but characteristic also of some 
other taxa (see Bud ); here it is not considered to 
embrace palintomy (where perhaps strobilation also 
Glossary 21
belongs) or catenoid colony- formation, although 
distinctions are not always clear-cut (Fig. 2.11C). 
Bulge Microtubules : see Rhabdos . 
Cannibalistic : see Carnivorous . 
Capitate Tentacle : suctorial tentacle enlarged at 
its distal end; see Attachment Knob (Fig. 2.9Cd). 
Capitulum (pl. Capitula ): amorphous material cap-
ping the proximal end of the nematodesma in some 
 dysteriid cyrtophorines ; this maxillary armature or 
tooth, sometimes quite prominent in appearance, 
may enclose kinetosomes that were involved in the 
development of the nematodesma (Cap, Fig. 2.5D). 
Capsules : see mention under Tentaculoid . 
Capsules Torquées : see mention under Tentaculoid . 
Carnivorous : literally “meat-devourèr”; eater of or 
feeder on some other or the same (= cannibalistic) 
species of ciliate, zooflagellate, or metazoan; 
generally refers to a holozoic and predatory, not a 
parasitic or even histophagous , mode of life. 
Case : synonym of lorica , which is the preferred term. 
Catenoid Colony : see Catenulation . 
Catenulation : temporary line or chain of individu-
als brought about by repeated (and generally ani-
sotomic ) binary fissions without separation of the 
resulting filial products ; found in some astomes , in 
certain apostomes , and rarely in species of other 
groups; see Strobilation (Fig. 2.8Ba). 
Cathetodesma (pl. Cathetodesmata ): periodically 
striated, subpellicular fiber, transversely oriented, arising 
from or near the anterior right region of the posterior 
somatic kinetosome of a somatic dikinetid, literally, 
“cutting” to the left toward the next kinety; found 
only in certain clevelandelline armophoreans ; a short 
kinetodesma , arising from nearly the same location, is 
also present in the same ciliates (Cd, Fig. 2.1Ed). 
Cathrobic : see Kathrobic . 
Caudal Cilium (pl. Cilia ): distinctly longer somatic
cilium (occasionally more than one) at or near the 
posterior or antapical pole, sometimes used in tem-
porary attachment to the substratum; arises from a 
polar basal body-complex (CC, Fig. 2.5Ac). 
Caudalia : ciliary tufts (of syncilia ), on short non-
retractable stalks, at the posterior or antapical pole 
of some entodiniomorphids . 
Cavernicolous : cave-dwelling; ciliates speleologi-
cally inclined! 
Cell Anus (pl. Anuses ): see Cytoproct . 
Cell Division : see Fission . 
Cell Envelope : see Cortex . 
Cell Mouth : see Cytostome ; but for usage in a 
very broad and general way, see Oral Region . 
Chain Formation : see Catenulation . 
Chondriome : total mitochondrial complex of a 
cell (or ciliate). 
Ciliary Corpuscle : see Kinetid . 
Ciliary Girdle : in a general way, the term is 
restricted to peritrichs, yet it is also used for any 
encircling band of somatic ciliature (e.g., as seen in 
Didinium -like haptorians ); see Locomotor Fringe
(CG, Fig. 2.5Ad). 
Ciliary Meridian : the argentophilic line (= pri-
mary meridian) coursing above the kinetosomes, 
with recognition of secondary, and even tertiary, 
meridians located interkinetally; historically nota-
ble in the tetrahymenine hymenostomes, where it is 
especially visible with dry and wet silver impreg-
nation techniques ; see Kinety (CM, Fig. 2.7e). 
Ciliary Organellar Complex : any specific struc-
ture, oral or somatic , compounded of cilia or 
cilia-derivatives; see Ciliature and Compound
Ciliature . 
Ciliary Rootlet : generally rare in ciliates; some-
times formerly used to include various structures, 
fibrillar or microtubular in nature, arising from 
or associated with kinetosomes , particularly the 
nematodesma ; a special case is represented by 
the striated fibers extending centripetally from the 
vicinity of certain kinetosomes and plunging deep 
into the cytoplasm, for example, in the adhesive 
disc of mobiline peritrichs . 
Ciliary Row : longitudinal line or file of somatic
cilia ; see Kinety . 
Ciliary Territory : see Kinetosomal Territory . 
Ciliary Wreath : see Ciliary Girdle . 
22 2. Glossary of Terms and Concepts Useful in Ciliate Systematics
Ciliatology : the study of ciliates; the investigators 
are therefore ciliatologists. 
Ciliature : general term referring to assemblages of 
cilia ; see definitions under terms denoting specific 
kinds of ciliature: atrial , buccal , circumoral , cirral ,
 compound , coronal , oral , perioral , peristomial ,
 perizonal , prebuccal , scopulary , simple , somatic ,
 synciliary , thigmotactic , and vestibular . 
Ciliferous : literally “cilium-bearing”; used in ref-
erence to kinetosomes that regularly produce cilia; 
used for the cilium-bearing stage in those ciliates 
that have cilia only at some stage(s) in the life cycle 
of the organism and not at others (at which time 
they are non-ciliferous, naked, or barren). 
Ciliophore : an anterior protuberance that bears 
ciliature in some entodiniomorphids . 
Ciliospores : now outmoded word for certain 
tomites arising by palintomy (e.g., in the hymenos-
tome Ichthyophthirius ). 
Cilium (pl. Cilia ): cylindrical organelle (diameter 
ca . 0.26 µm; length variable, often 5–10 µm) arising 
from a kinetosomal base and projecting from the 
body surface of an organism though covered with 
the common plasma membrane ; internally com-
plex, with an axoneme comprised ultrastructurally 
of microtubular structures in a “9 + 2” arrange-
ment; the nine peripheral doublets continuous 
with the kinetosomal microtubules and the central 
pair arising from this axosome; typically disposed 
over the body in longitudinal rows or files, though 
with many exceptions; in “ compound ” forms – see 
appropriate terms under Ciliature – occurring both 
on the body (e.g., as cirri ) and in oral regions (e.g., 
as oral ciliature ); may function in locomotion, 
especially, with diversity of beating patterns, and 
in feeding, attachment, and sensing; various kinds 
of specialized cilia are recognized (e.g., caudal ,
 clavate , marginal ) (Figs. 2.1B, 2.1C, 2.3k, 2.4E, 
2.5Aa, 2.5Ac). 
Circumoral Ciliature : line, circle or band of 
essentially simple ciliature encircling (i.e. perio-
rally) all or part of the apical end, including the 
cytostome, of the body of a number of litostomes 
and phyllopharyngeans ; basically organized as 
dikinetids (but not dyads ), only one kinetosome of 
which is typically ciliferous ; often comprised of the 
anterior extremities of the more or less regularly 
arranged somatic kineties or occasionally, of extra, 
interpolated kinetal segments; variations exist, par-
ticularly at the level of the infraciliature, and these 
are of taxonomic value. 
Circumoral Connective : fibril-like line seeming to 
encircle the buccal overture ; a silverline structure, 
but of some value, along with other parts of the 
argyrome in general, in the comparative taxonomy 
of such forms as the tetrahymenine hymenostomes 
(CoC, Fig. 2.7e). 
Circumoral Kinety (pl. Kineties ): name sometimes 
used for the two posteriormost of the three oral 
kinetofragments found in cyrtophorine phyllopharyn-
geans anteriad to the complex cyrtos

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