Cap 17
102 pág.

Cap 17


DisciplinaZoologia3.291 materiais22.176 seguidores
Pré-visualização50 páginas
in character-
istic helical coils so that the margin of the cone 
spirals at least twice around the central column, 
but may spiral up to a half a dozen full turns in 
some species ; no spines; collar, short, broad; cili-
ation with posterior part of the right field covering 
the spiralling cone and the left field at the base of 
the cone; sessile; peduncle, low and broad; macro-
nucleus, heteromerous, ellipsoid; micronucleus, 
present; contractile vacuole, possibly present; cyto-
proct, present; feeding (?); typically in freshwater 
habitats, usually on the gills of gammarid amphi-
pods ; three genera. 
 \u2013 Cavichona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Serpentichona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Spirochona Stein, 1852 
 Order Cryptogemmida Jankowski, 1975 
 (syns. Endogemmina , Dorsofragmina + Ventro-
fragmina ) 
 Size, small; shape, often flattened, leaf-like, 
and angular; spines common and of several types; 
collar, reduced; stalk, typically present, of vary-
ing length; internal budding, with up to eight 
tomites produced in a crypt or marsupium; 
macronucleus, heteromerous, with orthomere 
directed antapically away from funnel ; in marine 
habitats, occurring solely on littoral and open 
ocean crustaceans (i.e. amphipods , copepods , cya-
mids , nebaliids ), including crustacean epibionts of 
 whales ; six families. 
 Family ACTINICHONIDAE Jankowski, 1973 
 Size, small to medium; shape, sac-like, usually 
flattened; cortex, often thickened; apical end coni-
cal, not flattened, sometimes with a fold, and 
with conspicuous spines in some species; cone 
rotated 90° to right, relative to body and point of 
attachment ; collar may be elongate; ciliation with 
left field considerably reduced; sessile; peduncle, 
present, rather than stalk, with broad part of body 
often closely applied to substrate; crypt of vary-
ing size; macronucleus, heteromerous, ellipsoid; 
micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, absent; 
cytoproct, absent; feeding (?); in marine habitats, 
exclusively on nebaliids ; six genera. 
 \u2013 Actinichona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Carinichona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Crassichona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Cristichona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Kentrochonopsis Doflein, 1897 
 \u2013 Rhizochona Jankowski, 1973 
 Family ECHINICHONIDAE Jankowski, 1973 
 Size, small to medium; shape, rhombic or spin-
dle-like, markedly flattened dorsoventrally; cone 
flattened, not rotated; cone with smooth wall and 
small teeth on its margins ; collar distinct, nar-
row, low; ciliation with long and narrow right 
field and very reduced left field ; sessile; stalk, 
quite long in some species; crypt, very deep and 
broad ; macronucleus, heteromerous, ellipsoid; 
micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, absent; 
cytoproct, absent; feeding (?); in marine habitats, 
on nebaliids ; three genera. 
 \u2013 Coronochona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Echinichona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Eurychona Jankowski, 1973 
 Family INVERSOCHONIDAE Jankowski, 1973 
 (syn. Pleochonidae ) 
 Size, small to medium; shape, sometimes elon-
gate, flattened dorsoventrally; very heavy, well-
developed body spines in some species; apical
end very broad, flattened, usually simple, but 
occasionally with a few spines ; cone flattened, 
not rotated; collar, distinct; ciliation with left field 
larger than right field, which may be subdivided 
into two components ; sessile; peduncle, exceed-
ingly short; crypt relatively shallow ; macro-
nucleus, heteromerous, elongate; micronucleus, 
present; contractile vacuole, absent; cytoproct, 
absent; feeding (?); in marine habitats, on nebali-
ids ; five genera. 
 \u2013 Ceratochona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Chonosaurus Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Inversochona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Kentrochona Rompel, 1894 
 \u2013 Pleochona Jankowski, 1973 
 Family ISOCHONIDAE Jankowski, 1973 
 Size, medium; shape, cylindrical, elongate, not 
flattened; cone, rounded, simple, funnel-shaped, 
rather small and undistinguished, and in line 
386 17. The Ciliate Taxa Including Families and Genera
with main axis of long body ; collar, short; cili-
ation with right field not subdivided and left field 
relatively large; sessile; stalk, sometimes long; 
crypt of moderate size; macronucleus, heteromer-
ous, ellipsoid; micronucleus, present; contractile 
vacuole, absent; cytoproct, absent; feeding (?); 
in marine habitats, with very wide distribution 
on appendages or shell of amphipods , nebaliids , 
and cyamids , including the \u201c whale-lice \u201d found on 
species of several genera of whales from various 
oceans; five genera 
 \u2013 Cyamichona Jankowski, 1971 
 \u2013 Inermichona Jankowski, 1971 
 \u2013 Isochona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Thalassochona Jankowski, 1971 
 \u2013 Trichochona Mohr, 1948 
 Family ISOCHONOPSIDAE Batisse & 
Crumeyrolle, 1988 
 Size, small to medium; shape, cylindrical, elon-
gate; cone, rounded, funnel-shaped, in line with 
main axis of long body; cone margin indented by 
flexible folds that are able to close the opening 
to the oral region ; collar, short; ciliation with left 
field and a right field, which is subdivided into an 
horizontal upper band and an oblique lower band; 
sessile; peduncle, short; macronucleus, heteromer-
ous, ellipsoid; micronucleus, present; contractile 
vacuole, absent; cytoproct, connected by tube to 
the cell surface; feeding (?); in marine habitats, on 
the periopods of copepods ; one genus. 
 \u2013 Isochonopsis Batisse & Crumeyrolle, 1988 
 Family STYLOCHONIDAE Mohr, 1948 
 Size, small to medium; shape, triangular or 
rhomboid, leaf-like, markedly flattened dorsoven-
trally, spines, may be large, elongate or may be as 
rows of papillae; cone, flattened, not rotated; conal
margin often spiny, with pockets and folds in 
conal wall ; collar, very short; ciliation with larger 
right field and a left field that may be reduced to 
an almost vertical band; sessile; stalk, of varying 
length, sometimes unusually long; crypt, often 
very deep ; macronucleus, heteromerous, ellipsoid; 
micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, absent; 
cytoproct, absent; feeding (?); in marine habitats, 
on nebaliids; ten genera. 
 \u2013 Armichona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Ctenochona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Dentichona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Eriochona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Flectichona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Oxychonina Corliss, 1979 
 \u2013 Paraoxychona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Pterochona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Spinichona Jankowski, 1973 
 \u2013 Stylochona Kent, 1881 
 Subclass Rhynchodia Chatton & Lwoff, 1939 
 (syns. Rhynchodea p.p ., Toxistomia p.p .) 
 Size, small to rarely medium; shape, ovoid, 
somewhat flattened, typically with pointed ante-
rior end; free-swimming, but if parasitic, typically 
attached to host tissue; adult forms, either devoid 
of somatic ciliature or with it mostly restricted to 
an anteroventral thigmotactic field; oral region not 
bounded by oral kinetal structures; oral appa-
ratus a suctorial tube supported only by phyl-
lae ; oral extrusomes, as toxic (?) acmocysts or 
haptotrichocysts ; reproduction, isotomic fission 
or often by budding; larval forms typically with 
two ciliated fields; macronucleus, homomerous; 
micronucleus, often large, sometimes multiple; 
predators of other ciliates, especially suctorians 
and peritrichs, or parasitic (?) on gills or mouth-
parts of diverse invertebrates in marine and fresh-
water habitats, but most often on gills of marine 
 bivalve molluscs ; two orders. 
NOTE : The classic monographs on this group 
are by Chatton and Lwoff (1949, 1950). Raabe 
(1970b) provided the last major taxonomic treat-
ment.
 Order Hypocomatida Deroux, 1976 
 (syns. Hypocomatina , Hypocomida , Hypocomina 
+ Macrostomatina ) 
 Size, small; shape, dorsoventrally flattened; 
somatic kineties, essentially restricted to the 
ventral surface with a short anterio-lateral left 
kinety, a presumed homologue of the dorsal 
right kinetofragment of cyrtophorines; poste-
rior adhesive region bounded by somatic kine-
ties in right-ventral pit or fosette ; oral ciliature,