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kineties, a right paro-
ral that may be developed as a polykinetid, 
and several oral polykinetids along the left ; 
macronucleus, globular; micronucleus, present; 
contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct (?); feed-
ing on small flagellates and ciliates; in terrestrial 
habitats; two genera. 
 – Jaroschia Foissner, 1993 
 – Pentahymena Foissner, 1994 
17.3 The Ciliate Taxa to Genus 401
 Family KREYELLIDAE Foissner, 1979 
 Size, very small; shape, ovoid, somewhat flat-
tened; free-swimming; somatic ciliation, reduced 
or absent on left and dorsal sides; oral region, large 
relative to body size; paroral typically extending 
only along the anterior half of the right border 
of the oral cavity ; left serial oral polykinetids, 
inconspicuous, typically fewer than six, each 
may be reduced to one row of kinetosomes ; 
macronucleus, globular to ellipsoid; micronucleus, 
present; contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct, 
present in some species; bacterivorous; in freshwa-
ter and terrestrial habitats; three genera. 
 – Kreyella Kahl, 1931 
 – Microdiaphanosoma Wenzel, 1953 
 – Orthokreyella Foissner, 1984 
 Family TRIHYMENIDAE Foissner, 1988 
 Size, small; shape, elongated, ovoid; free-swim-
ming; somatic ciliation, holotrichous; oral region, 
small relative to body size; paroral short, slightly 
curved, in anterior right of oral region, appear-
ing to be an extension of somatic Kinety 1 ; two 
rectangular left oral polykinetids, disposed in a 
“
V
” pattern ; macronucleus, globular to ellipsoid; 
micronucleus, large; contractile vacuole, present; 
cytoproct (?); bacterivorous (?); in terrestrial habi-
tats; one genus. 
 – Trihymena Foissner, 1988 
Incertae sedis in order Bryometopida 
 Family TECTOHYMENIDAE Foissner, 1993 
 Size, small; shape, ovoid; free-swimming; 
somatic ciliation, holotrichous but sparse and 
with somatic Kinety No. 2 interrupted ; oral
structures including a simple or compound, 
U-shaped paroral, extending on right and over 
to posterior left, and typically five rectangular 
oral polykinetids on left ; division in reproductive 
cysts; macronucleus, globular to ellipsoid; micro-
nucleus, present; contractile vacuole, present; cyto-
proct, present; bacterivorous; in terrestrial habitats; 
two genera. 
 – Pseudokreyella Foissner, 1985 
 – Tectohymena Foissner, 1993 
 Order Bryophryida de Puytorac, Perez-Paniagua, 
& Perez-Silva, 1979 
 (syn. Bryophryina ) 
 Size, small to large; shape, elongate ovoid; free-
swimming; somatic ciliation, holotrichous; right
oral kinetids at least including a series of radi-
ally oriented kinetosomal rows along the right 
border of the oral region, sometimes extending 
to almost encircle it (except Notoxoma in which 
these are presumed to have been reduced to one 
kinetosome); left oral polykinetids, ranging from 
one to many that may extend out into the preoral 
suture (e.g., Puytoraciella ); stomatogenesis, pat-
tern not known; division in reproductive cysts; 
macronucleus, globular to ellipsoid; micronucleus, 
may be multiple; contractile vacuole, present, 
sometimes with collecting canals; cytoproct (?); 
feeding on bacteria and cyanobacteria; in tempo-
rary freshwater ponds and terrestrial habitats; one 
family. 
 Family BRYOPHRYIDAE de Puytorac, Perez-
Paniagua, & Perez-Silva, 1979 
 With characteristics of the order; four genera and 
one genus incertae sedis . 
 – Bryophrya Wenzel, 1953 
 – Notoxoma Foissner, 1993 
 – Parabryophrya Foissner, 1985 
 – Puytoraciella Njiné, 1979 
Incertae sedis in Family Bryophryidae 
 – Telostomatella Foissner, 1985 
 Order Bursariomorphida Fernández-Galiano, 1978 
 (syns. Bursaridida , Bursariida , Bursari(i)na ) 
 Size, medium to large; shape, broadly ovoid; 
somatic ciliation, holotrichous, often very dense; 
oral cavity, funnel-like or cup-shaped, often 
expansive, and opening on the anterior and 
ventral surfaces; left oral polykinetids, many, 
composed of three long rows, extending as an 
adoral zone along the left side of the expan-
sive, deep anterior oral cavity ; stomatogenesis, 
pleurotelokinetal; carnivorous; resting cyst, may 
be heavy-walled with micropyle; in freshwater 
habitats, such as ponds and small lakes; two 
families. 
402 17. The Ciliate Taxa Including Families and Genera
 Family BURSARIDIIDAE Foissner, 1993 
 Size, medium; shape, broad, ovoid, barrel- to 
tube-shaped; free-swimming; somatic ciliation, 
holotrichous, dense; posterior end of oral cavity 
with serial left oral polykinetids curved to right 
or straight ; paroral (?), a series of more densely 
ciliated kinetofragments, possibly extensions of 
somatic kineties, which surround the oral cav-
ity opening ; macronucleus, globular to elongate 
ellipsoid and reniform; micronucleus, may be 
present; contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct (?); 
feeding on smaller protists; in freshwater habitats, 
typically in the plankton of small lakes and ponds; 
two genera. 
 – Bursaridium Lauterborn, 1894 
 – Paracondylostoma Foissner, 1980 
 Family BURSARIIDAE Bory de St. Vincent, 1826 
 (syn. Archiastomatidae ) 
 Size, large; shape, broadly ovoid, with rounded 
posterior end (though tailed in one species) and 
truncate anterior end; free-swimming; somatic cili-
ation, holotrichous, dense; oral cavity prominent, 
funnel-like, opening at apical end of organism and 
remaining open for some distance onto ventral 
surface; posterior end of oral cavity with serial 
left oral polykinetids in sigmoid curve to the 
left ; paroral as series of oral polykinetids on 
the right wall of the oral cavity, separated from 
right somatic kineties by a non-ciliated band ; 
division while free-swimming; macronucleus, 
elongate, rod-like to vermiform; micronucleus, 
multiple, up to 35; conjugation, temporary, and 
only colpodean reported to conjugate; contractile 
vacuole, up to several hundred; cytoproct (?); feed-
ing on smaller protists, other ciliates, and even 
metazoans, depending upon relative size; in fresh-
water lakes and temporary ponds; one genus. 
 – Bursaria O.F. Müller, 1773 
 Order Colpodida de Puytorac et al., 1974 
 (syns. Colpodina , Grossglockner(i)ida , Gross-
glocknerina ) 
 Size, small to large; shape of many species 
highly asymmetrical, but detorsion before binary or 
palintomic fission; right oral structure as paro-
ral, associated with a few to many somewhat 
ordered or disordered rows to its right, some-
times forming a polykinetid, but reduced to a 
single row of dikinetids in some genera ; left oral 
polykinetid composed of several to many well-
ordered monokinetidal rows ; stomatogenesis, 
merotelokinetal; division, typically palintomic, in 
reproductive cysts; resting cysts common; in fresh-
water and terrestrial habitats; six families. 
 Family BARDELIELLIDAE Foissner, 1984 
 Size, small; shape, ovoid; free-swimming; 
somatic ciliation, holotrichous; oral cavity in 
posterior half of cell with left oral polykinetid, 
very much longer than right oral polykinetid 
and extending out onto the cell surface to the 
anterior pole so that the oral region occupies 
the anterior two thirds of the ventral surface ; 
macronucleus, globular to ellipsoid; micronucleus, 
prominent; contractile vacuole, present; feeding 
(?); in terrestrial habitats; one genus. 
 – Bardeliella Foissner, 1984 
 Family COLPODIDAE Bory de St. Vincent, 1826 
 (syns. Exocolpodidae , Paracolpodidae ) 
 Size, small to large; shape, typically kidney-
shaped; free-swimming; somatic ciliation, holot-
richous, except in smaller species, with somatic 
kineties curving to converge on an anterior ventral 
keel; somatic kineties on left postoral region may 
be distributed in a well-developed groove, whose 
ciliature directs food to the oral cavity; oral cav-
ity in anterior to mid-half of body, a shallow 
depression to deeper tube, dependent on cell size; 
right and left oral polykinetids of about equal 
length ; stomatogenesis, merotelokinetal, typically

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