Cap 17
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Cap 17


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& Kahan, 1986 
Incertae sedis in Family Platyophryidae 
 \u2013 Ottowphrya Foissner, Agatha, & Berger, 2002 *
 Family SAGITTARIIDAE Grandori & Grandori, 
1935
 (for Proshymenidae ) 
 Size, small; shape, ovoid; free-swimming, but 
some species in mucous sheaths; somatic ciliation, 
holotrichous, but sparse and with caudal cilium; oral 
region on rounded anterior end of cell with paro-
ral in one segment and serial left oral polykinetid 
zone of the same length ; macronucleus, globular 
to ellipsoid; micronucleus, in perinuclear space (?); 
contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct (?); bacte-
rivorous; in terrestrial habitats; one genus. 
 \u2013 Sagittaria Grandori & Grandori, 1934 
17.3 The Ciliate Taxa to Genus 405
 Family WOODRUFFIIDAE von Gelei, 1954 
 (syn. Woodruffidae ) 
 Size, small to large; shape, broadly ovoid; free-
swimming; somatic ciliation, holotrichous, with 
anterior ends of left somatic kineties typically 
forming several paratene-like rows bordering the 
serial left oral polykinetids ; oral region, subapical, 
slanted, on right side of cell; right paroral dikinetid 
not segmented; serial left oral polykinetids, in a 
more or less distinctive adoral zone extending 
into preoral suture, thus longer than paroral ; sto-
matogenesis, pleurotelokinetal with parental paroral 
probably reorganized during the process; macronu-
cleus, globular to ellipsoid; micronucleus, in perinu-
clear space; contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct, 
present; feeding on cyanobacteria, fungal spores, and 
smaller protists, including other ciliates; in marine, 
freshwater, and terrestrial habitats; six genera. 
 \u2013 Etoschophrya Foissner, Agatha, & Berger, 2002 *
 \u2013 Kuklikophrya Njiné, 1979 
 \u2013 Rostrophrya Foissner, 1993 
 \u2013 Rostrophryides Foissner, 1987 
 \u2013 Woodruffia Kahl, 1931 
 \u2013 Woodruffides Foissner, 1987 
Incertae sedis in Order Cyrtolophosidida 
 Family PSEUDOCHLAMYDONELLIDAE Buit-
kamp, Song, & Wilbert, 1989 
 Size, small; shape, ovoid; free-swimming; somatic 
ciliation as kineties of dikinetids, restricted to right 
(= ventral) surface with a single somatic kinety of 
dikinetids on the anterior left ; oral region, equato-
rial, with an uninterrupted paroral on right and several 
rectangular oral polykinetids on left; distinct cyr-
tos-like cytopharyngeal apparatus ; macronucleus, 
globular, may be in two nodules; micronucleus, in 
perinuclear space (?); contractile vacuole, present; 
cytoproct (?); feeding on microalgae, especially dia-
toms; in freshwater habitats, particularly spring-fed 
margins of rivers; two genera. 
 \u2013 Hackenbergia Foissner, 1997 
 \u2013 Pseudochlamydonella Buitkamp, Song, & 
Wilbert, 1989 
 Order Sorogenida Foissner, 1985 
 Size, small; shape, elongate, ovoid; free-swim-
ming; somatic ciliation, holotrichous; oral region 
at anterior pole of cell with paroral of dikinetids 
on right and several serial left oral polykinetids, 
together forming almost a closed circle around 
the cytostome ; stomatogenesis, pleurotelokinetal 
with parental structures retained during the proc-
ess; macronucleus, globular to slightly ellipsoid; 
micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, present; 
cytoproct, present; feeding on smaller Colpoda
species; only in terrestrial habitats, especially 
on submerged leaves, where it may aggregate to 
form aerial sorocarps, like some myxomycetes, 
enclosing \u201cspores\u201d (= resting cysts) ; one family. 
 Family SOROGENIDAE Bradbury & Olive, 1980 
 With characteristics of the order; one genus. 
 \u2013 Sorogena Bradbury & Olive, 1980 
Incertae sedis in Class COLPODEA 
 \u2013 Rhyposophrya Kahl, 1933 
 Class PROSTOMATEA Schewiakoff, 1896 
 (syns. Apicostomata p.p ., Paramastigina p.p ., 
 Prostomata p.p ., Prostomina p.p ., Telostomata p.p .) 
 Size, small to large; shape, ovoid to cylin-
droid; free-swimming with some sessile forms 
in loricae; alveoli, often well-developed; somatic 
ciliation, holotrichous, but with reduced ciliation 
in posterior in some taxa; somatic kineties often 
arranged in complete circumferential paratenes 
with dikinetids at their anterior extremities ; 
somatic monokinetids usual, with radial transverse 
ribbon, slightly convergent postciliary ribbon, and 
anteriorly directed kinetodesmal fibril that does not 
overlap those of other kinetids; somatic dikinetid, 
when present, with posterior kinetosome derived 
from monokinetid and anterior kinetosome bearing 
only a tangential transverse ribbon; oral region, 
apical, subapical, or lateral with cytostome 
at or near body surface; circumoral ciliation 
with oral dikinetids (a paroral homologue?), 
radial to tangential to perimeter of oral area; 
oral dikinetid postciliary ribbons extending 
laterally from each dikinetid, overlapping one 
another, and, in some species, forming a circu-
lar microtubular band that supports the walls 
of a shallow atrium ; cytopharyngeal apparatus, 
cyrtos-like, with nematodesmata originating from 
the bases of circumoral dikinetids; stomatogenesis, 
406 17. The Ciliate Taxa Including Families and Genera
 merotelokinetal, with migration of ventral anlagen 
subapically to apically; macronucleus, homomer-
ous; bacterivorous, algivorous, carnivorous, and 
histophagous, including Cryptocaryon as a para-
site of marine fishes ; in freshwater, terrestrial, 
and marine habitats, widely distributed with some 
planktonic species; two orders and one family 
incertae sedis . 
 Order Prostomatida Schewiakoff, 1896 
 (syn. Vasicolina p.p .) 
 Size, small to medium; shape, cylindroid; free-
swimming; loricae produced by several species; 
somatic ciliation, holotrichous, clearly \u201cradi-
ally symmetrical\u201d ; paratenes, typically conspicu-
ous; oral region, apical, surrounded by circumoral 
dikinetids; brosse, absent ; toxicysts, absent ; sto-
matogenesis, not described; microphagous; two 
families. 
 Family APSIKTRATIDAE Foissner, Berger, & 
Kohmann, 1994 
 (syn. Enchelyidae p.p ., Holophryidae p.p .) 
 Size, small to medium; shape, cylindroid; free-
swimming; somatic kineties, mostly bipolar, 
but some inserted on an indistinct suture as 
short segments between bipolar ones ; paratenes, 
present but not conspicuous; oral region, apical, 
surrounded by simple oral dikinetids; macronu-
cleus, globular; micronucleus, present; contractile 
vacuole, present; cytoproct, present; feeding on 
cyanobacteria and microalgae; in freshwater habi-
tats; one genus. 
NOTE : Foissner, Berger, and Kohmann (1994) 
discovered problems with the nomenclature of 
Holophrya , Prorodon , and Pseudoprorodon , which 
necessitated the establishment of the new genus 
Apsiktrata with the type species Urotricha graci-
lis Penard, 1922. This genus presents the form of 
what was previously known as Holophrya (e.g. in 
Corliss, 1979; Small & Lynn, 1985). 
 \u2013 Apsiktrata Foissner, Berger, & Kohmann, 1994 
 Family METACYSTIDAE Kahl, 1926 
 Size, small to large; shape, cylindroid; free-
swimming, but living in a pseudochitinous or 
gelatinous lorica ; somatic kineties, bipolar ; 
paratenes conspicuous ; caudal cilia, present; oral
region, apical, with perioral ciliature composed 
of several rings of ciliature, surrounding the 
circumoral ciliature ; macronucleus, globular to 
ellipsoid; micronucleus, present; contractile vacu-
ole, present; cytoproct (?); bacterivorous (?); in 
marine, brackish, and freshwater habitats; three 
genera.
 \u2013 Metacystis Cohn, 1866 
 \u2013 Pelatractus Kahl, 1930 
 \u2013 Vasicola Tatem, 1869 
 Order Prorodontida Corliss, 1974 
 (syns. Bursellopsida p.p ., Colepina, Placina ) 
 Size, small to large; shape, ovoid to cylindroid; 
free-swimming; alveoli, well-developed, including 
calcium carbonate concretions as skeletal plates 
in the Family Colepidae; somatic ciliation, hol-
otrichous, but may be reduced in posterior half 
of cell, which typically bears one to many cau-
dal cilia; somatic extrusomes as mucocysts; oral
extrusomes as toxicysts, may be in oral palps or