Cap 17
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Cap 17

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depression; oral polykinetids reduced, with oral 
polykinetid 1 typically non-ciliated and with 
relatively inconspicuous oral ciliature on the 
other two oral polykinetids ; scutica, a trian-
gular arrangement of ciliated kinetosomes in 
the director meridian ; macronucleus, globular 
to ellipsoid; micronucleus, present; contractile 
vacuole, present; cytoproct, present; bacterivorous; 
in marine, freshwater, and occasionally terrestrial 
habitats; seven genera. 
 \u2013 Homalogastra Kahl, 1926 
 \u2013 Pseuduronema Hoare, 1927 
 \u2013 Urocyclon Song & Wilbert, 2000 
 \u2013 Uronema Dujardin, 1841 
 \u2013 Uronemella Song & Wilbert, 2002 *
 \u2013 Uronemopsis Kahl, 1931 
 \u2013 Uropedalium Kahl, 1928 
 Family UROZONIDAE Grolière, 1975 
 (syn. Urozonatidae ) 
 Size, very small; shape, ovoid, but well rounded 
at anterior and posterior ends ; free-swimming; 
somatic ciliation as a series of short kineties, 
forming a single equatorial belt of somatic 
ciliature; caudal cilium, single, long; oral region 
as deep equatorial cavity with two oral polyki-
netids of two rows of kinetosomes, transverse 
to the longitudinal axis of the oral region ; scu-
tica of several kinetosomes in \u201cV\u201d configuration; 
macronucleus, globular; micronucleus, present; 
contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct, present; 
bacterivorous; in freshwater polysaprobic habitats; 
one genus. 
 \u2013 Urozona Schewiakoff, 1889 
Incertae sedis in Order Philasterida
 \u2013 Andreula Kahl, 1934 
 \u2013 Bizonula Corliss, 1960 
 \u2013 Cryptostomina Fedele, 1938 
 \u2013 Eurychilum André, 1910 
 \u2013 Lembadionella Kahl, 1933 
 \u2013 Ptyssostoma Hentschel, 1927 
 \u2013 Pusilloburius Corliss, 1979 
 \u2013 Rhinodisculus Mansfeld, 1923 
 \u2013 Sertumia Tucolesco, 1962 
 Order Pleuronematida Fauré-Fremiet in Corliss, 
 (syns. Conchophthiriina p.p ., Deuterostomatina 
p.p ., Pleuronematorina ) 
 Size, very small to medium, with occasional 
striking exceptions; shape, ovoid; free-swimming, 
but with some forms restricted to loricae; somatic 
ciliation, holotrichous, but often more sparse 
posteriorly, with thigmotactic ciliation often well 
developed in some taxa; caudal cilia, typically 
one or more, conspicuous in many species; extru-
somes as somatic mucocysts, sometimes of two 
types, one being rod-like; oral region, often 
expansive, with paroral often prominent with 
long cilia, forming a curtain or velum as the 
organism feeds; paroral infraciliary base with 
a short a and an elongate b segment and with 
c segment as a permanent scutica or scuti-
covestige; ribbed wall conspicuous, may be in 
two fields ; cytostome, equatorial or subequatorial 
in anterior 3/4 of body, rarely leaving room for 
a director-meridian; stomatogenesis of opisthe 
oral structures derived from paroral of proter 
and scutica ; microphagous, predominantly bacte-
rivorous, but some species algivorous; in marine, 
freshwater, and terrestrial habitats, widely distrib-
uted as free-living forms, sometimes in sands, but 
with some species commensalistic in molluscs and 
other invertebrates, and some species coprozoic; 
nine families. 
17.3 The Ciliate Taxa to Genus 419
 Family CALYPTOTRICHIDAE Small & Lynn, 
 Size, small; shape, elongate ovoid; free-swim-
ming, but residing in a tubular lorica ; somatic 
ciliation, holotrichous, dense; caudal cilium, 
present; oral region occupying most of ven-
tral surface with conspicuous velum, extending 
around posterior of oral region and onto its left 
posterior margin, and with oral polykinetid 1 
relatively longer and narrower than oral polyki-
netid 2 ; cytostome, postequatorial; macronucleus, 
globular; micronucleus (?); contractile vacuole, 
present; cytoproct (?); bacterivorous; in brackish 
and freshwater habitats; one genus. 
 \u2013 Calyptotricha Phillips, 1882 
 Family CONCHOPHTHIRIDAE Kahl in Doflein 
& Reichenow, 1929 
 (syn. Conchophthiriidae ) 
 Size, small to medium; shape, generally ellipsoi-
dal to broadly reniform, laterally compressed; free-
swimming; somatic ciliation, holotrichous, dense; 
caudal cilia, may be present, sometimes long; 
thigmotactic ciliature on right anterior as field 
of structurally differentiated ciliated somatic 
dikinetids; oral region, nearly equatorial, as 
relatively small cavity into which vestibular 
kineties may extend on its right or left side; oral 
polykinetids reduced, obliquely oriented along 
left anterior wall of oral cavity; germinal row of 
stomatogenic kinetosomes deep in oral cavity ; 
macronucleus, globular to ellipsoid, rarely nodular; 
micronucleus, present; contractile vacuole, present; 
cytoproct, present; bacterivorous and detritivorous; 
in freshwater habitats as endocommensals in the 
mantle cavity (on gills) of bivalve molluscs ; two 
 \u2013 Conchophthirus Stein, 1861 
 \u2013 Conchoscutum Raabe, 1947 
 Family CTEDOCTEMATIDAE Small & Lynn, 
 Size, small; shape, ovoid; free-swimming; 
somatic ciliation, holotrichous, sparse, typically 
of ciliated dikinetids; caudal cilia, prominent; oral
region, midventral with cytostome posterior to 
equator; velum of paroral segments a , b , and c , 
comb-like, as an open \u201cC\u201d, not extending to the 
left of the cytostome ; ribbed wall, conspicuous ; 
oral polykinetid 3 at right angle to longitudinal 
axis of oral region ; macronucleus, globular to 
ellipsoid, rarely nodular; micronucleus, present; 
contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct, present; 
bacterivorous; in marine habitats; five genera. 
 \u2013 Compsosomella Small & Lynn, 1985 
 \u2013 Ctedoctema Stokes, 1884 
 \u2013 Hippocomos Czapik & Jordan, 1977 
 \u2013 Paractedectema Small & Lynn, 1985 
 \u2013 Paractedoctema Song & Wilbert, 2000 
 Family CYCLIDIIDAE Ehrenberg, 1838 
 Size, very small to small; shape, ovoid to elongate-
ovoid, often with glabrous anterior and posterior 
zones; free-swimming; somatic ciliation, hol-
otrichous, sparse, but denser in the anterior 
half of the body in some genera; caudal cilium, 
distinctive, one to several ; oral region, not promi-
nent, with cytostome variable in position and oral 
ciliature not conspicuous; paroral dikinetid, often 
inconspicuous, typically with its postcytostomal 
curve not extending anterior and left of cyto-
stome ; oral polykinetids, often highly fragmented; 
macronucleus, globular to ellipsoid; micronucleus, 
large, often located in anterior third of body; 
contractile vacuole, present; cytoproct, present; 
bacterivorous; in marine, brackish, freshwater, and 
terrestrial habitats, widely distributed with intersti-
tial, anaerobic, and coprozoic species; ten genera. 
 \u2013 Apocyclidium Foissner, Agatha, & Berger, 2002 *
 \u2013 Caspionella Jankowski, 1980 
 \u2013 Cristigera Roux, 1899 
 \u2013 Cyclidium O.F. Müller, 1773 
 \u2013 Echinocyclidium Jankowski, 1980 
 \u2013 Isocyclidium Esteban, Finlay, & Embley, 1993 
 \u2013 Mesogymnus Berger in Corliss, 1979 [ nomen
nudum ] 
 \u2013 Paracyclidium Grolière, de Puytorac, & Grain, 
 \u2013 Protocyclidium Alekperov, 1993 
 \u2013 Pseudocyclidium Small & Lynn, 1985 
 Family DRAGESCOIDAE Jankowski, 1980 
 Size, small; shape, ovoid, flattened; free-
 swimming; somatic ciliation, uneven, with 
420 17. The Ciliate Taxa Including Families and Genera
several close-set thigmotactic kineties along 
right-ventral anterolateral margin; oral region, 
midventral, with single oral polykinetid, which 
runs adjacent to the inside curve of the paroral 
and which is presumably a fusion of three oral 
polykinetids ; macronucleus, ellipsoid; micronu-
cleus, present; contractile vacuole, present; cyto-
proct, present; bacterivorous(?); in marine habitats 
as ectosymbionts on certain strongylocentrid echi-
noids ; one genus. 
 \u2013 Dragescoa Jankowski, 1974 
 Family HISTIOBALANTIIDAE de Puytorac & 
Corliss in Corliss, 1979 
 (syns. Sulciferiidae , Sulcigeridae ) 
 Size, medium to large; shape, elliptical in out-
line, with right side slightly concave and anterior 
end a little narrower than posterior; free-swim-
ming; somatic ciliation, holotrichous,