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An Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation Techniques and Applications by Philip Willmott (z-lib org)

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An Introduction to
Synchrotron Radiation
An Introduction to
Synchrotron Radiation
Techniques and Applications
PHILIP WILLMOTT
Swiss Light Source
Paul Scherrer Institut
Villigen, Switzerland
A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication
This edition first published 2011
c© 2011 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Willmott, Philip (Philip R.)
aa An introduction to synchrotron radiation : techniques and applications / Philip Willmott.
aaaaaaa p. cm.
aa Includes bibliographical references and index.
aa ISBN 978-0-470-74579-3 (cloth) – ISBN 978-0-470-74578-6 (pbk.)
a 1.aa Synchrotron radiation. 2.aa X-ray optics.aa I. Title.
aa QC793.5.E627W55 2011
aa 539.7′35 – dc22
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa2011007847
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Cloth ISBN: 978-0-470-74579-3
Paper ISBN: 978-0-470-74578-6
ePDF ISBN: 978-1-119-97096-5
oBook ISBN: 978-1-119-97095-8
ePub: 978-1-119-97286-0
eMobi: 978-1-119-97287-7
Typeset in 10/12pt Times by Laserwords Private Limited, Chennai, India
Printed in Singapore by Fabulous Printers Pte Ltd
To the memory of my father
Contents
Preface xiii
Acknowledgements xv
1. Introduction 1
1.1 A Potted History of X-rays 5
1.2 Synchrotron Sources Over the Last 50 Years 10
References 14
2. The Interaction of X-rays with Matter 15
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 16
2.3 Thomson Scattering 19
2.4 Compton Scattering 20
2.5 Atomic Scattering Factors 21
2.5.1 Scattering From a Cloud of Free Electrons 21
2.5.2 Correction Terms for the Atomic Scattering Factor 22
2.6 The Refractive Index, Reflection and Absorption 25
2.6.1 The Refractive Index 25
2.6.2 Refraction and Reflection 25
2.6.3 Absorption 28
2.7 X-ray Fluorescence and Auger Emission 32
2.7.1 X-ray Fluorescence 33
2.7.2 Auger Emission 35
2.7.3 Fluorescence or Auger? 36
2.8 Concluding Remarks 37
References 37
3. Synchrotron Physics 39
3.1 Introduction 39
3.2 Overview 39
3.3 Radiation From Relativistic Electrons 43
3.3.1 Magnetic Deflection Fields 46
3.3.2 Radiated Power Loss in Synchrotrons 47
3.4 Radio Frequency Power Supply and Bunching 48
3.5 Photon Beam Properties 50
3.5.1 Flux and Brilliance 50
3.5.2 Emittance 51
viii Contents
3.5.3 Coherence 53
3.5.4 Polarization of Synchrotron Radiation 54
3.6 Bending Magnets and Superbends 55
3.7 Insertion Devices 57
3.7.1 Wigglers 58
3.7.2 Worked Example: The SLS Materials Science Beamline
Wiggler 60
3.7.3 Undulators 60
3.8 Future Sources of Synchrotron Light 68
3.8.1 The Energy Recovery Linac 68
3.8.2 The Free-Electron Laser 70
3.8.3 Tabletop Synchrotrons 81
3.9 Concluding Remarks 85
References 85
4. Beamlines 87
4.1 Introduction 87
4.2 Front End 87
4.2.1 Beam-Position Monitors 88
4.2.2 Primary Aperture and Front-End Slits 89
4.2.3 Low-Energy Filters 90
4.3 Primary Optics 91
4.3.1 X-ray Mirrors 91
4.3.2 Mirror Focal Lengths – The Coddington Equations 94
4.3.3 Monochromators 95
4.3.4 Focusing Geometry 105
4.4 Microfocus and Nanofocus Optics 106
4.4.1 Lens Types 107
4.5 Beam Intensity Monitors 112
4.6 Detectors 113
4.6.1 Photographic Plates 113
4.6.2 Scintillator Detectors 114
4.6.3 The Point-Spread Function 115
4.6.4 Crystal Analysers 116
4.6.5 Image Plates and Charge-Coupled Devices 118
4.6.6 Pixel and Microstrip Detectors 119
4.6.7 Energy-Dispersive Detectors 123
4.7 Time-Resolved Experiments 127
4.7.1 Avalanche Photodiodes 128
4.7.2 Streak Cameras 128
4.8 Concluding Remarks 129
References 130
5. Scattering Techniques 133
5.1 Introduction 133
5.2 Diffraction at Synchrotron Sources 134
Contents ix
5.3 Description of Crystals 136
5.3.1 Lattices and Bases 136
5.3.2 Crystal Planes 137
5.3.3 Labelling Crystallographic Planes and Axes 140
5.4 Basic Tenets of X-ray Diffraction 140
5.4.1 Introduction 140
5.4.2 The Bragg Law and the Reciprocal Lattice 143
5.4.3 The Influence of the Basis 146
5.4.4 Kinematical and Dynamical Diffraction 147
5.5 Diffraction and the Convolution Theorem 147
5.5.1 The Convolution Theorem 148
5.5.2 Understanding the Structure Factor 149
5.6 The Phase Problem and Anomalous Diffraction 149
5.6.1 Introduction 149
5.6.2 The Patterson Map 151
5.6.3 Friedel’s Law and Bijvoet Mates 152
5.6.4 Anomalous Diffraction 153
5.6.5 Direct Methods 156
5.7 Types of Crystalline Samples 159
5.8 Single Crystal Diffraction 161
5.8.1 Laue Diffraction 161
5.8.2 Single Crystal Diffraction With Monochromatic X-rays 165
5.9 Textured Samples 168
5.9.1 Worked Example – Microdiffraction of Ancient Textiles 168
5.10 Powder Diffraction 171
5.10.1 Introduction 171
5.10.2 Basics of Powder Diffraction 172
5.10.3 Worked Example – Structural Solutions Made Easy 173
5.10.4 The Pair-Distribution Function 175
5.11 Protein Crystallography 176
5.11.1 Introduction 176
5.11.2 Geometry and Resolution 177
5.11.3