sm8_52
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sm8_52


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Problem 8.52 The oscillators used in communication systems are not ideal but often suffer from a 
distortion known as phase noise. Such an oscillator may be modeled by the random process 
 
 ( ))(2cos)( ttfAtY c \u3c6\u3c0 += 
 
where )(t\u3c6 is a slowly varying random process. Describe and justify the conditions on the random process 
)(t\u3c6 such that Y(t) is wide-sense stationary. 
 
Solution 
The first condition for wide-sense stationary process is a constant mean. Consider t = t0, 
then 
 [ ] ( )[ ])(2cos)( 000 ttfAtY c \u3c6\u3c0 += EE 
 
In general, the function cos \u3b8 takes from values -1 to +1 when \u3b8 varies from 0 to 2\u3c0. In 
this case \u3b8 corresponds to 2\u3c0fct0 + \u3c6(t0). If \u3c6(t0) varies only by a small amount then \u3b8 
will be biased toward the point 2\u3c0fct0 + E[\u3c6(t0)], and the mean value of E[Y(t0)] will 
depend upon the choice of t0. However, if \u3c6(t0) is uniformly distributed over [0, 2\u3c0] then 
2\u3c0fct0 + \u3c6(t0) will be uniformly distributed over [0, 2\u3c0] when considered modulo 2\u3c0, and 
the mean E[Y(t0)] will be zero and will not depend upon t0. 
 
Thus the first requirement is that \u3c6(t) must be uniformly distributed over [0,2\u3c0] for all t. 
 
The second condition for a wide-sense stationary Y(t) is that the autocorrelation depends 
only upon the time difference 
 [ ] ( ) ( )[ ]
( ) ([ ])()()(2cos)()()(2cos
2
)(2cos)(2cos)()(
21212121
2
221121
ttttfttttfA
ttfAttfAtYtY
cc
cc
\u3c6\u3c6\u3c0\u3c6\u3c6\u3c0 )
\u3c6\u3c0\u3c6\u3c0
\u2212+\u2212++++=
++=
E
EE
 
 
where we have used the relation ( ))cos()cos(coscos 21 BABABA \u2212++= . In general, 
this correlation does not depend solely on the time difference t2-t1. However, if we 
assume: 
 
We first note that if \u3c6(t1) and \u3c6(t2) are both uniformly distributed over [0,2\u3c0] then so is 
)()( 21 tt \u3c6\u3c6\u3c8 += (modulo 2\u3c0), and 
 
( )[ ]
0
))(2cos(
2
1)(2cos
2
0
2121
=
++=++ \u222b\u3c0 \u3c8\u3c8\u3c0\u3c0\u3c8\u3c0 dttfttf ccE (1) 
 
Continued on next slide 
 
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that 
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page\u20268-64 
Problem 8.52 continued 
 
We consider next the term RY(t1,t2)= ( )[ ])()()(2cos 2121 ttttfc \u3c6\u3c6\u3c0 \u2212+\u2212E and three special 
cases: 
 
(a) if \u2206t = t1-t2 is small then )()( 21 tt \u3c6\u3c6 \u2248 since \u3c6(t) is a slowly varying process, and 
( ))(2cos
2
),( 21
2
21 ttf
AttR cY \u2212= \u3c0 
(b) if \u2206t is large then \u3c6(t1) and \u3c6(t2) should be approximately independent and 
)()( 21 tt \u3c6\u3c6 \u2212 would be approximately uniformly distributed over [0,2\u3c0]. In this case 
0),( 21 \u2248ttRY 
using the argument of Eq. (1). 
 
(c) for intermediate values of \u2206t, we require that 
 
)()()( 2121 ttgtt \u2212\u2248\u2212\u3c6\u3c6 
 
for some arbitrary function g(t). 
 
Under these conditions the random process Y(t) will be wide-sense stationary. 
 
 
 
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only 
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that 
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. 
page\u20268-65