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```Scilab Textbook Companion for
Principles Of Linear Systems And Signals
by B. P. Lathi1
Created by
A. Lasya Priya
B.Tech (pursuing)
Electrical Engineering
NIT, Surathkal
College Teacher
Cross-Checked by
S.M. Giridharan, IIT Bombay
August 11, 2013
1Funded by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT,
http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Textbook Companion and Scilab
codes written in it can be downloaded from the ”Textbook Companion Project”
section at the website http://scilab.in
Book Description
Title: Principles Of Linear Systems And Signals
Author: B. P. Lathi
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Edition: 2
Year: 2009
ISBN: 0-19-806227-3
1
Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the
above book.
Exa Example (Solved example)
Eqn Equation (Particular equation of the above book)
AP Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular
Example of the above book)
For example, Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means
a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.
2
Contents
List of Scilab Codes 4
1 signals and systems 10
2 time domain analysis of continuous time systems 26
3 time domain analysis of discrete time systems 42
4 continuous time system analysis 60
5 discrete time system analysis using the z transform 78
6 continuous time signal analysis the fourier series 89
7 continuous time signal analysis the fourier transform 97
8 Sampling The bridge from continuous to discrete 111
9 fourier analysis of discrete time signals 117
10 state space analysis 134
3
List of Scilab Codes
Exa 1.2 power and rms value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Exa 1.3 time shifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Exa 1.4 time scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Exa 1.5 time reversal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Exa 1.6 basic signal models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Exa 1.7 describing a signal in a single expression . . . . . . . . 21
Exa 1.8 even and odd components of a signal . . . . . . . . . . 22
Exa 1.10 input output equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Exa 2.5 unit impulse response for an LTIC system . . . . . . . 26
Exa 2.6 zero state response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Exa 2.7 graphical convolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Exa 2.8 graphical convolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Exa 2.9 graphical convolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Exa 3.1 energy and power of a signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Exa 3.8 iterative solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Exa 3.9 iterative solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Exa 3.10 total response with given initial conditions . . . . . . . 46
Exa 3.11 iterative determination of unit impulse response . . . . 50
Exa 3.13 convolution of discrete signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Exa 3.14 convolution of discrete signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Exa 3.16 sliding tape method of convolution . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Exa 3.17 total response with given initial conditions . . . . . . . 54
Exa 3.18 total response with given initial conditions . . . . . . . 55
Exa 3.19 forced response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Exa 3.20 forced response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Exa 4.1 laplace transform of exponential signal . . . . . . . . . 60
Exa 4.2 laplace transform of given fsignal . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Exa 4.3.a laplace transform in case of different roots . . . . . . . 62
4
Exa 4.3.b laplace transform in case of similar roots . . . . . . . . 62
Exa 4.3.c laplace transform in case of imaginary roots . . . . . . 63
Exa 4.4 laplace transform of a given signal . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Exa 4.5 inverse laplace transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Exa 4.8 time convolution property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Exa 4.9 initial and final value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Exa 4.10 second order linear differential equation . . . . . . . . 65
Exa 4.11 solution to ode using laplace transform . . . . . . . . . 66
Exa 4.12 response to LTIC system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Exa 4.15 loop current in a given network . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Exa 4.16 loop current in a given network . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Exa 4.17 voltage and current of a given network . . . . . . . . . 67
Exa 4.23 frequency response of a given system . . . . . . . . . . 68
Exa 4.24 frequency response of a given system . . . . . . . . . . 69
Exa 4.25 bode plots for given transfer function . . . . . . . . . . 69
Exa 4.26 bode plots for given transfer function . . . . . . . . . . 69
Exa 4.27 second order notch filter to suppress 60Hz hum . . . . 74
Exa 4.28 bilateral inverse transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Exa 4.29 current for a given RC network . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Exa 4.30 response of a noncausal sytem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Exa 4.31 response of a fn with given tf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Exa 5.1 z transform of a given signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Exa 5.2 z transform of a given signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Exa 5.3.a z transform of a given signal with different roots . . . 80
Exa 5.3.c z transform of a given signal with imaginary roots . . 81
Exa 5.5 solution to differential equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Exa 5.6 response of an LTID system using difference eq . . . . 82
Exa 5.10 response of an LTID system using difference eq . . . . 83
Exa 5.12 maximum sampling timeinterval . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Exa 5.13 discrete time amplifier highest frequency . . . . . . . . 84
Exa 5.17 bilateral z transfrom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Exa 5.18 bilateral inverse z transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Exa 5.19 transfer function for a causal system . . . . . . . . . . 86
Exa 5.20 zero state response for a given input . . . . . . . . . . 87
Exa 6.1 fourier coefficients of a periodic sequence . . . . . . . . 89
Exa 6.2 fourier coefficients of a periodic sequence . . . . . . . . 90
Exa 6.3 fourier spectra of a signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Exa 6.5 exponential fourier series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5
Exa 6.7 exponential fourier series for the impulse train . . . . . 94
Exa 6.9 exponential fourier series to find the output . . . . . . 95
Exa 7.1 fourier transform of exponential function . . . . . . . . 97
Exa 7.4 inverse fourier transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Exa 7.5 inverse fourier transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Exa 7.6 fourier transform for everlasting sinusoid . . . . . . . . 102
Exa 7.7 fourier transform of a periodic signal . . . . . . . . . . 104
Exa 7.8 fourier transform of a unit impulse train . . . . . . . . 105
Exa 7.9 fourier transform of unit step function . . . . . . . . . 107
Exa 7.12 fourier transform of exponential function . . . . . . . . 109
Exa 8.8 discrete fourier transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Exa 8.9 discrete fourier transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Exa 8.10 frequency response of a low pass filter . . . . . . . . . 114
Exa 9.1 discrete time fourier series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Exa 9.2 DTFT for periodic sampled gate function . . . . . . . 118
Exa 9.3 discrete time fourier series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Exa 9.4 discrete time fourier series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Exa 9.5 DTFT for rectangular pulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Exa 9.6 DTFT for rectangular pulse spectrum . . . . . . . . . 127
Exa 9.9 DTFT of sinc function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Exa 9.10.a sketching the spectrum for a modulated signal . . . . . 131
Exa 9.13 frequency response of LTID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132```
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