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# Apostila Introdução ao R (Português)

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Notas sobre R: Um ambiente de programação para Análise de Dados e Gráficos
R Development Core Team
Índice Geral
Prefácio
Sugestões ao leitor
1nullIntrodução e preliminares
1.1nullO ambiente R
1.3nullEstatística com R
1.4nullR em ambiente de janelas
1.5nullUso interactivo de R
1.6nullUma sessão de introdução
1.8nullComandos de R. Maiúsculas e minúsculas
1.9nullRecuperação e correcção de comandos anteriores
1.10nullExecução de um ficheiro de comandos e re-direccionamento da saída
1.11nullGuardar e eliminar de objectos
2nullCálculos simples. Números e vectores
2.1nullVectores numéricos. Assignação
2.2nullAritmética sobre vectores
2.3nullGerar sequências regulares
2.4nullVectores lógicos
2.5nullValores em falta
2.6nullVectores alfanuméricos
2.7nullVectores indexados. Selecção e modificação de sub-vectores
2.8nullClasses de objectos
3 nullObjectos: modos e atributos
3.1 nullAtributos intrínsecos: modo e dimensão
3.2nullAlterar a dimensão de um objecto
3.3nullObter e definir atributos
3.4nullClasses de objectos
4 nullFactores
4.1nullUm exemplo específico
4.2nullA função tapply() e variáveis indexadas desiguais
5.3nullUso de variáveis indexadas como índices
5.4nullA função array()
5.4.1nullOperações com variáveis indexadas e vectores. Reciclagem
5.5nullProduto externo de duas variáveis indexadas
Exemplo: Distribuição dos determinantes de uma matriz de dígitos
5.7nullOperações com matrizes
5.7.1nullProduto matricial. Matriz inversa. Resolução de sistemas lineares
5.7.2nullAutovalores e autovectores
5.7.3nullDecomposição em valores singulares. Determinantes
5.8 nullPartições de uma matriz. Funções cbind() e rbind()
5.9 nullA função concatenação c() com matrizes
5.10nullTabelas de frequências a partir de factores
6.1nullListas
6.2nullConstrução e modificação de listas
6.2.1nullConcatenação de listas
6.3.1nullCriação de uma folha de dados
6.3.2nullFunções attach() e detach()
6.3.5nullGestão do caminho de busca
7nullImportação de ficheiros externos
7.2nullA função scan()
7.3.1nullAcesso a dados de uma biblioteca
8.1nullFunções estatísticas
8.2 Análise da distribuição de uma amostra de dados
8.3 Contrastes de duas amostras
9nullCiclos. Expressões condicionais
9.2 Ordens de controlo
9.2.1 Execução condicional. A ordem if
9.2.2 Ciclos. As ordens for, repeat, while
10nullDefina as suas próprias funções
10.1 Alguns exemplos simples
10.2 Definição de um operador binário
10.3 Argumentos com nome. Argumentos pré-determinados
10.4 O argumento \u201c...\u201d
10.5 Assignações dentro de uma função
10.6 Alguns exemplos mais complexos
10.6.1 Eficiência dos factores num desenho em blocos
10.6.2 Eliminar os nomes ao imprimir uma variável indexada
10.6.3 Integração numérica recursiva
10.7 Âmbito
10.8 Personalização do ambiente
10.9 Classes.```