Apostila Introdução ao R (Português)
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Apostila Introdução ao R (Português)


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	Notas sobre R: Um ambiente de programação para Análise de Dados e Gráficos
	R Development Core Team
	Índice Geral
	Prefácio
	Sugestões ao leitor
	1nullIntrodução e preliminares
	1.1nullO ambiente R
	1.2nullProgramas relacionados. Documentação
	1.3nullEstatística com R
	1.4nullR em ambiente de janelas
	1.5nullUso interactivo de R
	1.6nullUma sessão de introdução
	1.7nullAjuda sobre funções e capacidades
	1.8nullComandos de R. Maiúsculas e minúsculas
	1.9nullRecuperação e correcção de comandos anteriores
	1.10nullExecução de um ficheiro de comandos e re-direccionamento da saída
	1.11nullGuardar e eliminar de objectos
	2nullCálculos simples. Números e vectores
	2.1nullVectores numéricos. Assignação
	2.2nullAritmética sobre vectores
	2.3nullGerar sequências regulares
	2.4nullVectores lógicos
	2.5nullValores em falta
	2.6nullVectores alfanuméricos
	2.7nullVectores indexados. Selecção e modificação de sub-vectores
	2.8nullClasses de objectos
	3 nullObjectos: modos e atributos
	3.1 nullAtributos intrínsecos: modo e dimensão
	3.2nullAlterar a dimensão de um objecto
	3.3nullObter e definir atributos
	3.4nullClasses de objectos
	4 nullFactores
	4.1nullUm exemplo específico
	4.2nullA função tapply() e variáveis indexadas desiguais
	4.3nullFactores ordenados
	5nullVariáveis indexadas. Matrizes
	5.1nullVariáveis indexadas
	5.2nullElementos de uma variável indexada
	5.3nullUso de variáveis indexadas como índices
	5.4nullA função array()
	5.4.1nullOperações com variáveis indexadas e vectores. Reciclagem
	5.5nullProduto externo de duas variáveis indexadas
	Exemplo: Distribuição dos determinantes de uma matriz de dígitos
	5.6nullTransposta generalizada de uma variável indexada
	5.7nullOperações com matrizes
	5.7.1nullProduto matricial. Matriz inversa. Resolução de sistemas lineares
	5.7.2nullAutovalores e autovectores
	5.7.3nullDecomposição em valores singulares. Determinantes
	5.7.4nullAjustamento por mínimos quadrados. Decomposição QR
	5.8 nullPartições de uma matriz. Funções cbind() e rbind()
	5.9 nullA função concatenação c() com matrizes
	5.10nullTabelas de frequências a partir de factores
	6nullListas e folhas de dados
	6.1nullListas
	6.2nullConstrução e modificação de listas
	6.2.1nullConcatenação de listas
	6.3nullFolhas de dados
	6.3.1nullCriação de uma folha de dados
	6.3.2nullFunções attach() e detach()
	6.3.3nullTrabalhar com folhas de dados
	6.3.4nullConecção de objectos variados
	6.3.5nullGestão do caminho de busca
	7nullImportação de ficheiros externos
	7.1nullA função read.table()
	7.2nullA função scan()
	7.3nullAcesso a dados internos
	7.3.1nullAcesso a dados de uma biblioteca
	7.4nullEdição de dados
	7.5nullImportação de dados
	8nullDistribuições de probabilidades
	8.1nullFunções estatísticas
	8.2 Análise da distribuição de uma amostra de dados
	8.3 Contrastes de duas amostras
	9nullCiclos. Expressões condicionais
	9.1 Expressões agrupadas
	9.2 Ordens de controlo
	9.2.1 Execução condicional. A ordem if
	9.2.2 Ciclos. As ordens for, repeat, while
	10nullDefina as suas próprias funções
	10.1 Alguns exemplos simples
	10.2 Definição de um operador binário
	10.3 Argumentos com nome. Argumentos pré-determinados
	10.4 O argumento \u201c...\u201d
	10.5 Assignações dentro de uma função
	10.6 Alguns exemplos mais complexos
	10.6.1 Eficiência dos factores num desenho em blocos
	10.6.2 Eliminar os nomes ao imprimir uma variável indexada
	10.6.3 Integração numérica recursiva
	10.7 Âmbito
	10.8 Personalização do ambiente
	10.9 Classes.